Lessons In The Prophet Muhammad Farewell’s Sermon/Khutbah By Imam Murtadha Gusau

In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful


All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. We ask Allah to exalt his mention as well as that of his family and all his companions.


Dear brothers and sisters! The Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) rr his first and last Hajj. Tens of thousands and it is even said a hundred thousand pilgrims, not counting women and children, performed Hajj with him. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) made the most of the opportunity presented by this great assembly to affirm what are considered major principles in Islam. They may not have been entirely new to those with him (Peace be upon him), but reaffirmation and reminder have roles that cannot be ignored. How could he (Peace be upon him) have not used this opportunity, since it was possible that he may not see them again after that year? Therefore, as reported by Imam Muslim, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Al-Baihaqi and others, the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) delivered a great and powerful Khutbah/Sermon on the Day of Arafah, saying:


“Indeed, your blood and your wealth are inviolable upon you like the sanctity of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this land of yours. Indeed, everything from the affairs of the Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic era) are quashed under my feet (abolished), and the blood of the Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic era) is abolished. The first blood I negate from our blood is the blood of Ibn Rabi’ah Ibn Al-Harith Ibn Abd Al-Muttalib – who was nursed among the tribe of Sa’ad and was killed by Hudhail. And the ribah (usury) of the Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic era) is abolished, and the first ribah I invalidate is our ribah, the ribah of Al-Abbas Ibn Abdul-Muttalib, for it is all abolished. Fear Allah regarding women. Verily, you have taken them as a trust (Amanah) from Allah, and intimacy has been made lawful by the word of Allah. Your rights over them are that they do not let anyone you dislike in the house. If they do so, you may strike them without violence. Their rights over you are that you provide for them and clothe them in a reasonable manner. And I have left among you that which, if you hold fast to it, you will never go astray after me: the Book of Allah. And you will be asked about me, so what will you say?” They said, “We bear witness that you have conveyed the messages of your Lord, and you have fulfilled your duty and counselled your Ummah, and you have conveyed what was upon you.” He then raised his finger towards the sky and pointed it towards the people, saying, “O Allah, bear witness, O Allah, bear witness.”


Respected brothers and sisters! This great and powerful khutbah takes only a few minutes, but at the same time, it is more important than a speech that takes several hours. This is not surprising. For the one who delivered it is the one who was given concise and comprehensive speech and is the most eloquent in the Arabic language.


In this Sermon/Khutbah, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) confirms the necessity of opposing what the people of Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic times) were upon. The explanation for this is that the term “Jahiliyyah” clearly means that a matter is either in Islam or not in Islam at all. Allah Almighty says:


“Then is it the judgement of [the time of] ignorance they desire?” [Qur’an, 5:50]


And He the Most High says:


“And do not display yourselves as [was] the display of the former times of ignorance (Jahiliyyah).” [Qur’an, 33:33]


And He the Almighty says:


“When those who disbelieved had put into their hearts pride, the pride of the time of ignorance (Jahiliyyah).” [Qur’an, 48:26]


And Imam Al-Bukhari narrated in his Sahih in the Chapter of “Sins from the Matters of Jahiliyyah.” what the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said to Abu Dharr, may Allah be pleased with him, when he taunted a man about his mother, he said:


“Indeed, you are a person who has some Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic era) in you.” [Bukhari]


Some commentators of the Hadith said that every sin, whether from abandoning an obligation or committing a prohibited act, is from the traits of Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic era).


In the Farewell Sermon/Khutbah, the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) affirms the sanctity and freedom of Muslims, and that their blood and wealth are inviolable unless there is a justified cause. Otherwise, it is forbidden injustice. This is undoubtedly because it is linked to the sanctity of the sacred months and the sacred Mosque.


This Sermon/Khutbah was a historical proclamation of the rights of the Muslim in the greatest assembly and a declaration of a Muslim’s dignity and honour before Allah, prohibiting any form of harm towards them. Even abundant acts of worship and devotion do not benefit the person if they persist in harming others. Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that it was said:


“O Messenger of Allah, such and such woman prays at night, fasts during the day, but she harms her neighbours with her tongue. He (Peace be upon him) said, There is no good in her, she is one of the people of the hellfire.” [Bukhari, in Al-Adab Al-Mufrad]


In the Farewell Sermon/Khutbah, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) warns against consuming usury (ribah) and nullifies the usury of Jahiliyyah, which is based on deferring payment for an increased amount, whether small or excessive. How many victims has usury claimed! How many homes has it destroyed! How many calamities has it brought! Even if the only issue with usury is that it constitutes a war against Allah and His Messenger, that would be enough. Allah Almighty says:


“O you who have believed, fear Allah and give up what remains [due to you] of interest, if you should be believers. And if you do not, then be informed of a war [against you] from Allah and His Messenger.” [Qur’an, 2:278-279]


So let the usurers fear Allah and know the severity of their situation and its evil consequence. They should know that the shari’ah closes the doors to usury and that the means leading to it are blocked. Ploys do not make it permissible, for they are not hidden from the Lord of the Worlds. Such ploys deceive those who seek lawful earnings, causing them to fall into worse than what they fled from.


In his Farewell Sermon/Khutbah, the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) explained a major Muslim issue that the people of pre-Islamic times (Jahiliyyah) did not succeed in dealing with, which is the issue of women. Their whims and desires tossed women left and right, to the extent that they buried them alive. Allah Almighty says:


“And when one of them is informed of [the birth of] a female, his face becomes dark, and he suppresses grief. He hides himself from the people because of the ill of which he has been informed. Should he keep it in humiliation or bury it in the ground? Unquestionably, evil is what they decide.” [Qur’an, 16:58-59]


Dear brothers and sisters! Wallahi Islam has honoured the woman and made her the man’s partner. Just as it granted men guardianship over women, given her half the inheritance of her brother, half the testimony of a man, and half the blood money (diyah) of a man. This is not to demean her, but rather to safeguard her integrity. She is the caregiver of children and the nurturer of generations, characterised by decency, chastity, and staying in the home. Imam At-Tirmidhi narrated from Umm Salamah, may Allah be pleased with her, that she said: O Messenger of Allah, the men go out to battle, but the women do not fight, and we only get half the inheritance?” So Allah revealed:


“And do not wish for that by which Allah has made some of you exceed others. For men is a share of what they have earned, and for women is a share of what they have earned. And ask Allah of His bounty.” [Qur’an, 4:32]


Despite this differentiation between men and women, women have rights just as they have obligations, according to what is reasonable. The Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) said:


“Act kindly towards women.” [Bukhari and Muslim]


And Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) said:


“The best of you are those who are best to their women.” [Sunan Ibn Majah]


Also, he (Peace be upon him) granted the mother three times the right to one’s good company compared to the father’s one time. Abu Hurairah reported:


“A man asked the Messenger of Allah: Who is most deserving of my good company?” The Prophet said, “Your mother.” The man asked, “Then who?” The Prophet said “Your mother.” The man asked again, “Then who?” The Prophet said, “Your mother.” The man asked again, “Then who?” The Prophet said, “Your father.” [Bukhari and Muslim]


Respected servants of Allah! Fear Allah, and know that the last thing our beloved Messenger (Peace be upon him) instructed in the Farewell Hajj was to hold fast to the Book of Allah, which his Sunnah has clarified and explained. Allah the Most High says:


“Nor does he speak from [his own] inclination. It is not but a revelation revealed.” [Qur’an, 53:3-4]


The Book of Allah is like the soul for life and the light for guidance. Whoever does not hold fast to it is not truly alive, even if they speak or act. And whoever does not believe in it is lost and not guided.


“Then do they not reflect upon the Qur’an? If it had been from [any] other than Allah, they would have found within it much contradiction.” [Qur’an, 4:82]


Alas, how can some of us abandon the Book of Allah? How do they not act upon it? How do they not use it to judge their affairs? How have they confined their lives to its recitation without acting upon it? Allah Almighty says:


“Has the time not come for those who have believed that their hearts should become humbly submissive at the remembrance of Allah and what has come down of the truth? And let them not be like those who were given the Scripture before, and a long period passed over them, so their hearts hardened; and many of them are defiantly disobedient.” [Qur’an, 57:16]


Ya Allah, make the Great Qur’an the spring of our hearts, the light of our chests, and the remover of our sorrows.


Ya Allah, make us among those who act upon its verses and who recite it as it should be recited in a manner that pleases You.


Respected servants of Allah! Each year, our Islamic Center distributes the meat from your sacrifice to our orphans and brothers and sisters living in poverty under some of the world’s harshest conditions.


Often, this is their only chance to enjoy nutritious food of high quality.


By giving your sacrifice now, you’ll assist our trusted Islamic Center in acquiring your animal and planning the sacrifice and distribution at the appropriate time.


Even if you can’t offer a full sacrifice, you can contribute as little as you can for a share in an animal.


Please don’t overlook this great opportunity, or postpone it. They eagerly await your kindness, knowing that the generosity of the Ummah will shine upon them.


Together, let’s ensure that no one is forgotten in this blessed month of Dhul-Hijjah.


As usual, we sincerely seek your financial support, your help, your assistance, your donation and your contribution for the buying of cows in this coming blessed Eid-Ul-Adha Celebration for our orphans, in our Islamic schools. Your support is highly needed for Allah’s sake, FISABILILLAH!


We sincerely solicit for your kind and sincere contribution towards the Eid-Ul-Adha Udhiyyah/Layyah (sacrifice) for our orphans and our students, financially, materially and morally.


Our aim and objective always is to have a standard Islamic center and Arabic/Islamic schools for orphans and less privileged Muslims children.


Also if you want to pay your this year’s Zakah our great Islamic center is waiting for your kind and merciful gesture. Sincerely, your donation will help distribute sacrifice meat, etc for our orphans.


Remember, Eid-Ul-Adha Celebration will not be the same without our families, but unfortunately this is not a privilege enjoyed by everyone. This is the reason we’re steadfast in planning to provide meat for the orphans and students under our care!


We planned to distribute meat package that worth amount up to 7,000 orphans In Shaa Allah, this year (1445/2024).


And your contribution is highly needed as usual. May Allah rewards all your efforts and your good deeds, ameen.


Allah Almighty says:


“If you support the course of Allah, He will support you.” [Qur’an, 47: 7]


The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said:


“Whoever relieves his Muslim brother of a hardship from the hardships of this world, Allah shall relieve him of a hardship from the hardships of the Day of Judgement. And whoever makes things easy for a person in difficulty, Allah will ease for him in this world and the Next. Allah is forever aiding a servant so long as he is in the aid of his Muslim brother.”


And he (Peace be upon him) said:


“Every act of goodness is considered as Sadaqah.” [Bukhari]


Please donate to our meat and food package project. With your support we can provide essential Sallah meat, food Items and help alleviate the difficulties and bring ease to the orphans and needy who have been affected the most by the insecurity, inflation, cost of living crisis and world economic crisis.


Keep helping the cause of Allah with Allah’s money. Whoever gives for Allah, Allah will give him more. Donate to the Nagazi-Uvete Islamic Center.


This is our account details as follows:


1. Account no. – 0048647196, GTBank


2. Account no. – 1779691620, Access Bank


For more enquiries contact, Imam Murtadha Muhammad Gusau, the director and Imam Of the Center: 08038289761.


And to donate cows, rams etc, contact the following Numbers: 08038289761, 08056557477


Jazakumullah Khairan as you kindly contribute.


I conclude with this and send prayers and blessings and peace upon our Prophet as our Lord commanded:


“Indeed, Allah confers blessing upon the Prophet, and His angels [ask Him to do so]. O you who have believed, ask [Allah to confer] blessing upon him and ask [Allah to grant him] peace.” [Qur’an, 33:56]


Ya Allah, guide us with those whom You have guided, grant us well-being among those You have granted well-being, be an ally to us along with those whom You are an ally to, and bless what You have bestowed upon us, and save us from the evil of what You have decreed. For verily You decree and none can decree over You. He whom You support can never be humiliated. Glory is to You, our Lord, You are Blessed and Exalted.


Ya Allah, We ask You for all that is good, in this world and in the Hereafter, what we know and what we do not know. Ya Allah, we seek refuge with You from all evil, in this world and in the Hereafter, what we know and what we do not know. Ya Allah, we ask You for the good that Your servant and Prophet has asked You for, and we seek refuge with You from the evil from which Your servant and Prophet sought refuge. Ya Allah, we ask You for Paradise and for that which brings one closer to it, in word and deed, and we seek refuge in You from Hell and from that which brings one closer to it, in word and deed. And we ask You to make every decree that You decree concerning us good.


Dear servants of Allah! Indeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct and giving to relatives and forbids immorality and bad conduct and oppression. He admonishes you that perhaps you will be reminded.


Remember Allah, the Great – He will remember you. Thank Him for His favours – He will increase you therein. And seek forgiveness from Him – He will forgive you. And be conscious of Him – He will provide you a way out of difficult matters.


All praise is due to Allah, Lord of the worlds. May the peace, blessings and salutations of Allah be upon our noble Messenger, Muhammad (Peace be upon him), and upon his family, his Companions and his true followers.


Murtadha Muhammad Gusau is the Chief Imam of: Nagazi-Uvete Jumu’ah Mosque; and Late Alhaji Abdur-Rahman Okene Mosque, Okene, Kogi State, Nigeria. He can be reached via: [email protected]; or +2348038289761.

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